Between 1976 and 2003, the government of Pakistan has taken loans from International Financial Institutions (IFIs) for urban development
projects. These loans amount to US$ 1,472.44 million (Rs 88.346 billion)
and most of them have been for water and sanitation projects. They have multiplied over the years due to the devolution of the rupee and interest. These loans were identified through technical assistance for which an additional US$ 16.95 million (Rs 1.017 billion) was provided. Technical assistance includes development of human resources and the capacity building of relevant government institutions.